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The Spiritual Power of Master Ti Guang (1924-2005)
This translation is drawn primarily from the Chinese text entitled ‘体光法师神通二三事’, or ‘The Spiritual Power possessed By Master Ti Guang’, with secondary reference being made to the Chinese text entitled ‘当代中兴祖师--体光老和尚’, or ‘Contemporary Patriarch of the Nation – Ti Guang Old Monk’ for birth and death dates, etc. The first part of this translated text is comprised of visionary events that master Ti Guang experienced in his life and subsequently described whilst teaching the Dharma. This important information forms a crucial central core to his Dharma teaching, an understanding of which is essential if master Ti Guang’s place in modern Chinese Buddhist history is to be fully comprehended. His early life was inspired by the adventures of the Daoist gods, particularly their use and practice of the martial arts, as they sought spiritual Immortality. Indeed, it is because of this influence that he originally left home with the intention of becoming a Daoist aspirant seeking Immortality. However, as karma would have it he eventually became a Ch’an Buddhist monk and a very accomplished martial artist, training for a time at the Shaolin Temple in Henan. It is interesting to note that master Ti Guang considered modern martial arts as being designed only for ‘eye-catching’ competition, and therefore useless for spiritual development and self-defence. He once sparred with master Hai Deng and is reported to have bettered him in a martial arts match on Mount Yun Ju. His story shows that he possessed a number of psychic powers which he used to benefit others and maintain peace through social order. There are examples of Ch’an dialogue whereby master Ti Guang successfully ‘turns the words’ of students seeking instruction, a habit reminiscent of the Tang masters. He followed master Xu Yun and it is from his memory that we are informed that master Xu Yun could escape from any confinement – if he so wished – and that he possessed the spiritual power of appearing in more than one place at a time. Master Ti Guang was the last person to see master Xu Yun alive, and the text ends with master Ti Guang revealing certain important details contained within master Xu Yun’s Will. Shi Da Dao
Part One – Dharma Words of Master Ti Guang (体光法师)
1 - Wild Boar Vs Tiger.
(Extracted from Section 25 of the Dharma Words Record (开示录 – Kai Shi Lu) of master Ti Guang.)
My thatched hut is designed for a single occupant and is simple in design. I can not rest – the hut is designed for meditation. I gathered together bundles of grass to make thatch and as soon as I had stacked several bundles together, I sat inside with a small pot. I can go out, but others can not easily gain access, as the door is also made of grass and is difficult to discern from the rest of the hut. Being made of stacked grass the hut is very warm. I listened to the noises outside my hut and heard something move. A small wild boar was being chased by a tiger, which was trying to bite its back! The little wild boar tried to dig its way into my hut. It was as if the wild boar knew that the human (in the hut) would not harm it. However, the tiger would not dare to come into my hut. Near the hut there was a large rock – the tiger sat and watched from there. I said “We all live on the mountain together, why should you want to eat other beings?” The tiger came down from the rock and accompanied by the wild boar started to walk slowly back into the mountain interior. In the mountains I often see tigers, but I am not afraid of them. When I was staying at Shang Ma Shi (上马石– Mounting Horse Rock) I cooked and ate my vegetarian food before dawn, but during the day I would go down the mountain to purchase uncooked rice from the area of rice cultivation. Below there are several houses and ten acres of land. Six people use to live there, but a large tiger ate five of them. A person asked why it was that I could walk up and down the mountain without any fear of the tigers – even in the dark. I replied that I keep my mind focused upon the Goddess of Mercy, the Bodhisattva Guan Yin (观音), and in so doing I know that the tigers will not harm me, or come after me. This is true even for a tiger that can kill and eat human beings! The tiger use to lie in the mountain opposite my hut. Often the smaller wild animals would come over to the tiger, but the tiger would eat them immediately and without delay. However, the tiger was afraid of the bigger wild animals as some of them were very ferocious. To the front of my hut there was a low lying, marshy stretch of land that around several dozen wild boar lived in during the day, busily seeking food here and there. Often, when the wild boar encountered a particularly thick and rough tree, they would bite it to make a hole in the middle and swing their young piglets into it, thus creating a nest to keep their babies safe – once the process was completed, a larger adult wild boar would stand guard nearby. The wild boar uses its large mouth to gather grass together for the young boars to practice digging. When the young boars are playing in this way, a large wild boar lies down near by and guards them. When on the move, two or three wild boar walk ahead, whilst the biggest wild boar walks at the back of the group, in the middle are the youngest boars, protected front and back. When the tigers attack they are dealt with by the leading wild boars. When on Mount Yun Ju (云居山 – Yun Ju Shan), I was able to watch the wild boar for ten years. Here, there was planted rice, sweet potato, and peanuts. For much of the night I would observe the wild boar. If the wild boar came near the crops, I would shout and they would go away. Today, it appears that people do not know how to drive the wild boar away with a shout.
2 – Watching the Watermelons.
(Extracted from Section 25 of the Dharma Words Record (开示录 – Kai Shi Lu) of master Ti Guang.)
At the time of the official attack upon Buddhism, monks were not allowed to live on Mount Yun Ju, and were expelled down from the mountain. We were forced to live in a people’s commune situated at the foot of the mountain. This had an integrated factory manned by many dozens of workers. When I arrived at the foot of the mountain I discovered a path to a ruined temple, the existence of which I was previously unaware of. As soon as I discovered this area, I decided to stay in the dilapidated temple. I placed a grass cover over the temple (to conceal it) and settled down as best I could. Mao Zedong was determined to have his reform policy known as ‘Directive 57’ (五七指示– Wu Qi Zhi Shi) applied across China without exception. This policy was originally designed for the Chinese army to integrate military discipline with manufacturing, farming, labouring and political revolution as a means of thought reform – eventually this policy spread throughout China, being adopted in schools, universities, as well as factories and other places. This policy saw the acquisition of dozens of acres of waste land which was used to build factories and plant crops. The ordinary people were not allowed to graze their cattle on this land once it had been confiscated for government use. I watched as much of this land was used to plant watermelons. There were many large villages nearby, populated by people who were fierce and powerful. They became aware that a Buddhist monk was watching the watermelons. At night many secretly came to the watermelon area to see if they were ripe with the intention to steal them. I set-up a bench in the watermelon field (to protect it) and began reciting the name of the Bodhisattva Guan Yin (观音). Whilst I was chanting many dozens of people attempted to enter the watermelon field to steal the fruit – but they became paralysed and unable to move just before reaching the field itself. I was unaware at the time that this was happening. As these people could not walk at all, they stood still for a long time and were bitten by mosquitoes. I only found out this was happening the next day, when the villagers asked me to allow them to move. They asked as to whether this was some kind of magic, I answered that it was not magic, but rather that I was afraid that the watermelons might be stolen and that bad things would happen to the thieves and to myself as a consequence. In fact, I did not really know why the people could not move – all I was doing was chanting the name of the Bodhisattva Guan Yin with the utmost sincerity!
3 – Averting Disaster
(Extracted from Section 27 of the Dharma Words Record (开示录 – Kai Shi Lu) of master Ti Guang.)
Once this village had a temple, but it was stripped of its religious objects and the temple structure was deliberately damaged. The Bodhisattvas that resided in the temple all left to temporarily abide in the divine sky (天 – Tian), but were asked by the Jade Emperor (玉皇大帝 – Yu Huang Da Di) to return to the earth as the temple had been re-built. These Bodhisattvas immediately left for the earthly abode – they were accompanied by a troop of divine soldiers (天兵 – Tian Bing) which were led by divine generals (天将 – Tian Jiang). When arriving upon the Earth, however, these divine forces started to fight amongst themselves with the generals defeating the soldiers. The Bodhisattva Guan Yin, at this point in the proceedings, had the world hit (on all sides) with the five thunders (五雷– Wu Lei), after this Bodhisattva Guan Yin went away, but before leaving Bodhisattva Guan Yin said:
‘You should all go (and return to the divine sky) and I will immediately follow you. These people have already been killed, but the divine power from above does not agree that people should have died. On this day, all the men and women dared not to move, as others came to destroy their village! On the river bank there was an old master (老师父 – Lao Shi Fu) – he did not ask you to save him – instead the villagers went (to him) and requested that he save them. This is what the ordinary people say. It was believed that by 12 o’clock every living thing in the village was dead – with nothing surviving - no people, chickens, dogs, or even ants!’
Even though everyone was afraid, I did not leave the area; because of this a number of people ran to my hut for protection and knelt down out of respect and fear. I said: ‘Good, here I have half a bowl of rice, once I eat it, I shall go. You people should not kneel down here, stand-up and return to the village and I will follow you.’ A number of those present were experts in the Daoist path (道门 – Dao Men). They said that at 12 o’clock everyone and everything in the village had been killed, and that this catastrophe was sent down from the divine sky using special soldiers and generals as a punishment for the abandonment of traditional religion. This place was a people’s commune and was very large - the death toll was very great indeed. I asked everyone to sit-down for awhile and consider the situation. I said that it was now 1 o’clock and that the hour of destruction had passed - although everyone in the village must be dead – those who survived will now be safe. I advised the villagers not to dwell on this happening and return to their everyday activities in the village – the women to their cooking and the men to their planting – and that I will follow, but that they should let the matter drop and must not be afraid. A number of leaders in the commune came to me and said many good words. They said that the presence of an old master had averted a disaster for those who had survived. After two days I went to the village to see the people and they said that this old master was responsible for saving their lives.
4 - The Buddha’s Teaching (Tripitaka) Shines Brightly!
(Section 4 has no designation in the Chinese text but is obviously extracted from the
Dharma Words Record (开示录 – Kai Shi Lu) of master Ti Guang.)
Well, originally I did not like to go out outside, in fact I did not want to go anywhere, for any reason, but sometimes it was impossible not to go out for certain things. One day I had to go and collect Buddhist Sutras (藏经- Cang Jing = Tripitaka), this was a great undertaking that could not be refused. However, this journey turned out to be a useless undertaking. The coastal border guards (海关 – Hai Guan) at Shenzhen demanded money before they would let me continue, as I did not have any money, I had to return home without the Buddhist Sutras. Later, there was a great light from the Shenzhen border area that looked like a fire had started - indeed the local fire fighting service (消防队 – Xiao Fang Dui) attended, such was it brightness! They went forward to fight the fire but soon realised that it was the Buddhist Sutras – the Tripitaka – which was glowing and that there was no fire to be found. Seeing this, the head of the coastal border guards immediately arranged for the scriptures to be placed into a large automobile and transported to the entrance at the foot of the mountain – where they were safely delivered. I asked for the scriptures to be placed in the guest hall (客堂 – Ke Tang) and offered the coastal border guards some money but they refused and drove quickly away. This special occurrence is the product of a great (revealed) spiritual power that all may take comfort form. It made the Buddhist Sutras shine with a great light that appeared to burn with the intensity of a bright fire! We are born in this era, an era that sees things done that are difficult to understand and that cause much suffering amongst the people. In the past the Buddhist teachings were followed, but this is not how society is guided today. Today society controls itself this should not be the case at all. This kind of control can only harm and hinder.
Part Two – Master Ti Guang’s Biography
Ch’an master Ti Guang (体光法师) was born in 1924 to a poor farming family living in the province of Henan, situated in central China. When still a child, his mother use to take him to the local theatre to watch performances about ‘Han Xiang Zi’ (韩湘子). These plays presented the life of Han Xiang Zi – one of the famous Eight Immortals (八仙 – Ba Xian) of Chinese folklore. On the way home, after watching the entire play, master Ti Guang’s mother said: ‘I would like to be like Han Xiang Zi and attain to immortality!’ The next day, whilst his mother was working in the fields, master Ti Guang prized a brick out of the middle of the heated bed (炕 – Kang) as he knew that his mother had hidden some coins behind it. He grasped a handful and hid them about his person and left the family home with the intention of becoming a monk. Originally master Ti Guang wanted to pursue the Daoist path of spiritual immortality (神仙 – Shen Xian) in a Daoist temple (道观– Dao Guan) to be with other home-leavers (出家– Chu Jia) who were pursuing the spiritual path – wearing the long hair typical of a Daoist priest (道士 – Dao Shi). However, Daoist temples were few and far between in the local area, and so by mistake master Ti Guang entered a Buddhist temple (佛寺 – Fo Si) confusing it for a Daoist temple. An old Buddhist monk asked him: ‘What are you doing here?' Master Ti Guang answered: ‘I want to become Immortal.’ The old monk stated: ‘There are only men here and no godly Immortals – in this place we only cultivate the teachings of Buddha.’ Master Ti Guang asked: ‘What is the Buddha?’ The old monk replied: ‘The Buddha is of a higher level than the godly Immortals!' Master Ti Guang exclaimed: ‘It would certainly seem to be the case!’ He then asked the old Buddhist monk shave his head.
As master Ti Guang was very fond of martial arts practice, he went to the Shaolin Temple (少林寺 – Shao Lin Si) to continue his studies. He often said that modern martial skills (武功 – Wu Gong) look pleasing to the eye, but that they have no true spiritual or martial substance. At the Shaolin Temple, however, the Gongfu (功夫) is genuine and no distinction is made between its practice, and the practice of Ch’an meditation. These special skills are only used for self-defence to safeguard communities and to protect others from the threat of physical attack – but they are used sparingly and with self-control. In the 1950’s master Hai Deng (海灯法师) went to Mount Yun Ju (云居山) at the request of the venerable old monk – master Xu Yun (虚云老和尚), to preside over classes regarding the strict studying of the Hua Yan Sutra (华严). Master Hai Deng had a martial arts contest with master Ti Guang outside the mountain gate of Yun Ju – away from the temple. Master Ti Guang prevailed in martial skill at this time because he did not adhere to the formal procedure, but rather emphasised the practical. Master Hai Deng, as a consequence, had to admit defeat. At the end of the 1980’s, master Ti Guang was nearly seventy years old and living on Mount Yun Ju at the Zhen Ru Temple (真如寺 – Zhen Ru Si). At this time there were six martial practitioners from the Shaolin Temple living on Mount Yun Ju who did not follow the pure Buddhist monastic principles (净戒 - Jing Jie). Master Ti Guang asked these monks to leave, but instead of leaving all six Shaolin monks attacked him. The matter was resolved in a moment when all six monks were lifted from the ground by master Ti Guang’s martial skill – as a result all six were carried-out of the temple on stretchers. There have been many such excellent stories about master Ti Guang within the tradition of Ch’an Buddhism.
The master not only had amazing martial skills but he possessed other spiritual powers as well. During the Cultural Revolution the master was forced to leave the monastery and live in the Yong Xin County (Yun Shan) people’s commune where he guarded watermelons. When the local people tried to steal the watermelons the master cried ‘Stop!’, and the people became frozen to the ground and unable to move! For a few minutes only birds and animals could move about, after this no one had the idea of stealing watermelons! Some times master Ti Guang would go without eating rice for as long as a ten day period, whilst at other times he would eat enough rice to feed a dozen people – all at once! An attendant once said that on one occasion master Ti Guang complained of having a dry mouth, but instead of drinking water, he swallowed an entire bottle of soy sauce (酱油 – Jiang You) in a single gulp! One day master Ti Guang was in the laundry room taking a bath when a number of female lay followers entered the room in error. Master Ti Guang immediately began to speak to them about the Dharma and correct practice. They only left when the guest master caught up with them and took them to where they were supposed to be. Master Ti Guang said afterwards that he only heard the voices, but did not take any notice of their physical form. Once master Ti Guang went up onto the roof of the retreat temple that housed the Tripitaka (i.e. the entire collection of Buddhists Sutras) looking for leaks in the roof tiles. Suddenly he fell off the roof and fell to the ground and those who saw it were very shocked! However, those who witnessed this event said that he appeared to fall slowly to the ground, without causing any injury to himself. He immediately stood-up and went back up the stairs toward the roof. The master lived in a hut on Mount Yun Ju for thirty years. One day the master saw a tiger (老虎– Lao Hu) chasing a mountain deer (山鹿– Shan Lu). Out of fear the mountain deer hid next to master Ti Guang’s hut for safety, whilst the tiger guarded the area waiting for the deer to move away. The master went to see the tiger and said: ‘All things upon this mountain have a right to live – why do you make things so much harder?’ The tiger turned around, tossed its tail and left. When the master was walking through the mountains he came across a patch of Ling Zhi (灵芝 - Spirit Mushrooms), but this health giving plant was guarded by a huge python snake (蟒– Mang) which spread his hood over the area. The master said to the snake: ‘Animal – this monk has not eaten for many days, and you are in the way of the Ling Zhi – which I want to eat.’ Slowly, the snake moved away from the Ling Zhi so as to be in front of the master. As a reward for the very good behaviour, master Ti Guang administered the ‘Three Refugees’ (三皈依 – San Gui Yi) to the snake.
During the time of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), master Ti Guang had fore-knowledge that the Red Guard Soldiers (红卫兵 - Hong Wei Bing) would attack Buddhism and attempt to destroy its written teachings. Master Ti Guang ordered that the Buddhist Sutras at the Zhen Ru Temple (真如寺) be placed into dozens of iron buckets and sealed with a layer of pitch (沥青 – Li Qing). In the evening, at around midnight, these sutras were transported in their sealed buckets to the back of Mount Yun Ju, where they were buried inside a pit. They were collected in good condition around two weeks later. After this time, Premier Zhou (周总理 – Zhou Zong Li) ordered that Buddhism and its artefacts should be protected. A government task force arrived on the mountain possessing official papers that gave them authority to inspect Buddhist artefacts and sutras. Master Ti Guang met with the task force and said that he would lead them to retrieve the buried Tripitaka. The members of the task force knew that master Ti Guang was renowned for his integrity and knowledge, and that much was at stake. If they misbehaved, they were afraid that master Ti Guang would roar out for all to hear! Accompanied by a group of soldiers armed with two machine guns either side, master Ti Guang led the group into the mountains.
Master Ti Guang said: ‘I have been a Buddhist monk for many decades, but originally I wanted to become a Daoist Immortal through the study and practice of martial arts. Later, I wandered from place to place, studying Buddhism in a superficial manner and looking for food to eat – I did not really know what peace of mind was. It was only when I met (and trained with) the venerable old monk Xu Yun that I understood that he genuinely knew the truth and possessed an inner peace that was not disturbed by outward appearances. You are all monks dressed in your spiritual attire and seeking this pure and clean peace of mind. It is my duty to show you the correct path in your practice – if you do not know this then you will be wasting your time. If the mind is not completely pure and clean in your practice, it will chase after outward appearances without end and true inner peace will not be known. This is how my mind was when I was young, always running this way and that in search of the pure and clean truth. Only now have I found the true pure and clean mind state of inner peace – if any of you find it, please let me know!
Monks from overseas came to see master Ti Guang. One of them asked him whom he considered to be the most effective and correct Dharma-teacher – that is the ‘Great Dharma King’ (大法王 – Da Fa Wang)? Master Ti Guang replied my old father Suddhodana (净饭王 – Jing Fan Jing).
A local bureau chief came to see the teacher and said: ‘Venerable master, you and other Buddhists teach that only good deeds must be performed - this is good - but it is also said that if a human being performs bad deeds, then after death rebirth occurs as an animal (or something like this), this I do not believe! Together we practice examining the truth so that the true standard of experience can be established – as I have no knowledge of experiencing rebirth as an animal, I do not believe it to be true.' Master Ti Guang asked: ‘It is not right to eat dog faeces – do you believe this statement to be true?’ The bureau chief answered: ‘This is indeed my belief!’ To which the master asked: ‘Is this belief the consequence of you eating dog faeces in the past?’
One day members of an association called in to the temple and donated 20,000 Yuan to gain blessings by assisting the celebrations of Buddhism being in China for over two thousand years. The master commented; ‘You only know how to celebrate the transmission of Buddhism to China – do you not know that Buddhism was almost destroyed in China?’
Two monks came to see the master and said: ‘Master, we want to ask your permission to embark upon a one year isolated retreat to practice intensive meditation.’ The master gave his permission and said: ‘This is a rare event you must take a vow – a vow that I will personally administer.’ The master asked: ‘What is the exact purpose of this retreat?’ To which the monks replied: ‘We want to realise full enlightenment.’ The master asked: ‘If after a year you have not realised enlightenment, what will you do?’ The monks said: ‘In that case we will pursue cultivation through chanting.’ The master exclaimed: ‘This is confused thinking! If you do not achieve enlightenment you must die! Be careful - are you close to enlightenment? Now Go!’
After leaving the monastery for a time, master Ti Guang returned. Outside he encountered a beggar lying by the gate. The master sat next to him for a long time, and said: ‘You go into the temple and act as the abbot, and I will sit out here and beg on your behalf, do you agree?’ It is said that later the beggar took the Three Refuges and retired into the mountains to practice in isolation.
In the late 1930’s, the master (due to a good karmic connection produced in the past) was invited to live at the Gao Min Temple (高旻寺 – Gao Min Si), situated in the Yangzhou area of Jiangsu province, eastern China. Here, he held the post of master responsible for discipline (维那 – Wei Na) in the meditation hall. However, those who attended the temple at this time came from powerful families of noble birth, or high social office, and viewed Buddhist practice as nothing more than an elegant ritual. As a consequence, master Ti Guang was not able to maintain the correct disciple in the meditation hall, as these people were unyielding and would not bend to his will, so he left for Yun Men (云门) to join the old monk Xu Yun. When he arrived at Ru Yuan town he entered a small shop where an old man asked him: 'Have you travelled from Gao Min Temple? Are you travelling to Yun Men temple? I am also going to Yun Men. You seem to have lost your way, but I know the route and can show you how to get there.’ Therefore master Ti Guang accompanied this old man to the temple at Yun Men. The next day master Ti Guang attended a lecture in the meditation hall given by master Xu Yun, only to realise that this was the same old man who had led him yesterday from the shop in to the temple! When he told others that master Xu Yun had guided him from the shop to the temple, he was told that this was impossible, as master Xu Yun had been engaged in teaching the meaning of the sutras in the Dharma Hall (法堂– Fa Tang) all day and was seen by many. Master Ti Guang knew that master Xu Yun had guided him by appearing to be in more than one place at a time, and that this occurrence was an example of his miraculous spiritual power! Master Ti Guang said that he had the utmost confidence, reverence, love and respect for master Xu Yun. He added that today many wear the monk’s robes and say that they are disciple of master Xu Yun, but that this is not true. These people are acting out of base desires for purposes of self-aggrandisement.
The sad events of the ‘Yun Men Incident’ (的云门事件中 – De Yun Men Shi Jian Zhong) are well known involving the beating and torture of master Xu Yun by local government officials - it was like master Xu Yun experienced nine lives in one single incarnation (九死一生 – Jui Si Yi Sheng), such was his ability to withstand this brutal oppression, and narrowly escape with his life. This caused the master extreme grief and sorrow. In the middle of the night he secretly went to the place where master Xu Yun was being held, with the intention of rescuing him. However, the venerable old monk said: ‘If I wished to escape, it would be easy for me to do so, but if I did, then the lives of over four hundred monks would be placed in extreme danger. Do not concern yourself, I am all right. You go and see what is going on outside.’ The master went outside and to his astonishment saw the old monk directing workman in the repairing of the roof of the living quarters!
Master Xu Yun passed away in 1959 on Mount Yun Ju (云居山 – Yun Ju Shan), and at that time his death was kept secret throughout the country. However, eventually news of it spread to the newspapers outside of China. Those who tried to find out the truth in China (of the passing of master Xu Yun) were arrested by a special task force set-up to prevent the spread of this knowledge. The master said: ‘Nothing can appease their methods so there is no point in resisting. It was I who spread the news of master Xu Yun’s passing outside of China as I have connections in Hong Kong. In the Buddhist system rules have been specified. When an old monk dies, it is tradition that all have to be informed through a special letter, and return to their monasteries out of respect.’ The Buddha Task Force (佛工作 – Fo Gong Zuo) had no choice but to let the matter drop. Before master Xu Yun passed away the last disciple he saw was master Ti Guang. According to the memory of a Japanese monk who was present during master Xu Yun’s last days, around three hours before he passed away, he saw the old monk talking at the window to master Ti Guang and hand him a piece of paper full of written characters.
In the 1980’s, master Ti Guang was invited to go to Hong Kong where his disciples requested that they be shown the Will (遗嘱 - Yi Zhu) of master Xu Yun. Master Ti Guang explained that this is what master Xu Yun said: ‘The old monk Xu Yun protected the Dharma even at the risk of his life. Let all who understand this example be united in the practice of Dharma, and guard it down through the generations…. When the Buddha was alive the Dharma was strong, but he predicted that in the Dharma-ending age only one of the Twelve Dhuta (十二头陀 – Shi Er Tou Tou) would remain, but added that as long as one of the Twelve Dhuta practices is kept in a pure manner then the Buddha-Dharma would survive. However, if the Twelve Dhuta practices died-out completely, then the Buddha-Dharma would be lost.’  What else master Xu Yun said is known only to master Ti Guang.
Master Ti Guang did not live in the abbot’s room, and did not take the post of abbot. He said: ‘Such a post is only for the most senior of Buddhist monks.’
 The ‘Twelve Dhuta’ (十二头陀 – Shi Er Tou Tou) or Ascetic Disciplines found within early Buddhism which are: 1. Wearing rag robes 2. Possessing only three robes 3. Begging for food 4. Consecutive begging 5. Eating only one meal a day 6. Eating a fixed and moderate amount of food 7. Not drinking juices after noon 8. Dwelling in an Aranya (a quiet place) 9. Dwelling beneath a tree 10. Dwelling in the open 11. Dwelling in a graveyard 12. Always sitting and never lying
©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2012.